Time Division Multiplexing (TDM), Synchronous TDM, Asynchronous TDM, Statistical TDM Explained



👉 What is TDM?

* Time division multiplexing (TDM) is a technique of multiplexing.

* When Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) technique is used, multiple signals share the same channel by taking turn transmitting.
* Data is broken up into frames and assigned to time slots. (Like cars merging in a lane).

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* This technique is primarily used for digital data.

* Each signal uses the entire bandwidth of the channel when transmitting.

* On the receiving end, the demultiplexing process requires synchronization of the frames. This is often accomplished through a sync pulse.

👉 What is STDM?

* A process of time division multiplexing

* Time slots on the time division multiplexing (TDM) medium between Statistical time division multiplexing (STDM) multiplexers are dynamically allocated.

* STDM multiplexers are known as asynchronous multiplexers to differentiate them from the synchronous time division multiplexers.

👉 How does STDM work?

* To accomplish dynamic allocation of any input to any time slots, the TDM multiplexer places a header on the data that each input channel has ready to transmit.

* The Header informs that receiving STDM multiplexer which output channel is to receive data.

👉 Comparison Between Synchronous TDM & Asynchronous TDM





Multiplexer allocates same time slots to each device.

Multiplexer does not allocate same time slots to each device.


Equal to number of input lines.

Less than number of input lines.



There is no guarantee that full capacity link is used.

There is guarantee that full capacity link is used.



Total speed   of input lines cannot be greater than capacity of path

Total speed of input lines can be greater than capacity of path.


Usage of devices is less.

 Usage of devices is more.


Number of time slots in a frame as always based on number of input lines.

Number of time slots in a frame as always based on statistical analysis of number of input lines that are likely to be transmitting at any given time.


Time slots are fixed and pre- defined.

Time-slots are not pre-defined.


👉 Advantages of STDM

* More efficient bandwidth use

* Frame can contain control information

* Packet can be of varying sizes

👉 Disadvantages of STDM

* Complex structure

* Very expensive

👉 Applications

* The MPEG transport stream for digital TV transmission.

* Statistical multiplexing is used to allow several video, audio and data streams of different data rates to be transmitted over a bandwidth-limited channel.

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