Why does Aristotle Make a Distinction Between Instrumental and Intrinsic Goods?

Why does Aristotle make a distinction between instrumental and intrinsic goods, and how does this distinction allow him to arrive at the notion of the highest good? What is eudaimonia, and how is this notion different from ‘pleasure’? How does Aristotle define the term and why does he consider it to be the highest good? Second, why and how does Aristotle define virtue as excellence? Third, how Aristotle distinguish between moral and intellectual virtue? According to Aristotle, what is the role of habituation or habit formation in cultivation of a morally virtuous person? Using examples, discuss why and how the rational thought and actions of a morally virtuous person are guided by the ‘doctrine of the mean.’ Finally, think of a figure who might fit the description of a ‘morally virtuous person,’ and explain why.

Why does Aristotle Make a Distinction Between Instrumental and Intrinsic Goods?

The difference between intrinsic and instrumental good is that one is valuable in its own right while the other is something valuable that brings good. Instrumental goods are like clean water and safe neighborhoods. Intrinsic goods are like having a good life.

In moral philosophy, instrumental and intrinsic value are the distinction between what is a means to an end and what is as an end in itself. Things are deemed to have instrumental value if they help one achieve a particular end; intrinsic values, by contrast, are understood to be desirable in and of themselves.

Intrinsic value is the value the object inherently holds. A tree is good because it is part of an ecosystem, it is part of something greater. Instrumental value is the value we assign something. ... Prima facie values are values that we initially give something, but that can be overcome by other values.

Instrumental value occasionally—though not always—supervenes wholly on intrinsic properties of objects, states, or events. ... Of course, objects can be both instrumentally valuable and finally valuable, in which case an object might both be instru- mentally valuable and valuable for its own sake or as an end.

Normally, effectiveness of any object or thing is judged by two values; intrinsic and instrumental. To compare intrinsic value of education with instrumental value, this study has used the following variables: getting knowledge for its own sake, getting knowledge for social status, getting knowledge for job or business endeavor and getting knowledge for both purposes, which is for its own sake and also for job, business or status.

For this research quantitative method was used and a questionnaire was deployed to collect responses from 465 bachelor degree students from all over Pakistan (combining all provinces including Gilgit & AJK). It was found that the students gave mixed responses of acknowledging both values of education during the survey.

The research has significant relationship between each of its independent and dependent variables, although the strength of those relationships was weak in nature. However, 60% of the respondents when asked whether they will get their first or bachelor’s degree even if there is no instrumental value attached with it, responded in affirmative. This concludes that bachelor degree students in Pakistan give more value to intrinsic nature of education than its instrumental value.

Unlike our everyday concept of happiness, eudaimonia is not a state of mind, nor is it simply the experience of joys and pleasures. Moreover, happiness is a subjective concept. Eudaimonia, in contrast, is meant as an objective standard of 'happiness,' based on what it means to live a human life well.

Ascribing eudaimonia to a person, then, may include ascribing such things as being virtuous, being loved and having good friends. But these are all objective judgments about someone's life: they concern a person's really being virtuous, really being loved, and really having fine friends.

The term "eudaimonia" is a classical Greek word, commonly translated as "happiness", but perhaps better described as "well-being" or "human flourishing" or "good life". More literally it means "having a good guardian spirit".

The greek word "eudaimonia" is translated as "happiness". happiness is fleeting and unstable; what makes someone happy is different for most human beings; and happiness is a mental state or a feeling.

Eudaimonia is an end, we use all other goods to achieve it, thus eudaimonia is the highest end for human beings (requires reason which is strictly human). Many people will not reach eudaimonia because they do not have adequate resources, they may well know they will never reach eudaimonia.

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