What is Job Analysis, Job Enrichment & Job Enlargement?

What is Job Analysis, Job Enrichment & Job Enlargement?

Job analysis is defined as the process of identifying and determining the particular job requirements and duties and the significance of these duties for the provided job. It is a process where decisions are made about the collected data on a job. Job analysis is also used as a basis to develop the process of performance appraisal. It includes determining what employees do on the job and how their knowledge, ability, and skills contribute to their performance.

The main and crucial purpose of job analysis is to provide information to the organization that helps the organization to determine what kind of employees are the best fit for specific kinds of jobs. It is also used to assess the performance of the employees. It is then utilized to understand the training and development needs of the employees against those specific jobs.

Steps for Job Analysis are as follows:

1. Time for Job Analysis: The first step is the time and study of the organizational structure for which the job analysis would take place. This would talk about selecting and targeting the specific job in the organization whose job analysis you want. You'll will distinguish that job and conduct the analysis which normally takes place after regular interval time of 2-5 years.

2. Collection of Information Relating to Jobs: After deciding to conduct job analysis for the job that you have specified and targeted, the following are the ways where and from which you cqn collect the relevant information about the job:

(a) Questionnaires: It is a widely used method for the data collection which is less costly and can collect large data effectively. A detailed questionnaire is prepared about the job asking the employees relevant questions about their day to day asks from which the information is gathered.

(b) Observation: Another method of gathering the information regarding the job performance is by simple observation. You observe the day to day tasks performed by the employees either in continuous basis or samples. It is mainly used for the jobs involving physical activities more than the mental and skilled ones. A general familiarity is provided under this method.

(c) Interviews: The experienced employees having complete knowledge about their respective jobs are called and interviewed regarding their specific activities that they perform in their day to day lives in the job. An interview although time consuming gives you relevant and deep knowlege about the job and vital information could be collected.

3. Preparing Job Description Forms: The information collected from the above ways is now used to prepare a job description form. It is a document showing complete information that describes the various activities that are involved in the job. It also tells about how and when the job is to be done and how effectively a jobholder will do it. Separate job description forms are prepared for different jobs for the reference.

4. Preparing Job Specifications: The next step in the process of job analysis is the preparation of the job specification document on the basis of the information collected. The job specification is the statement showing the minimum requirement or minimum acceptable qualifications which are required for a person to perform that job.

5. Preparing Report: The job analysts are appointed by organization to do job analysis. Finally, the last step is the preparation of the job analysis report including the above mentioned points by the job analyst and submit the same to the HR manager.

Job enrichment and Job enlargement with Examples

Job Enrichment
Job enrichment is a technique which is commonly used by any organization to give the satisfaction of the employee to put more to work for the organization and giving some additional responsibilities which is alone previously for his higher authority (manager) or other higher ranking positions. 

For Example - If we do work for some company, they seems to have some plans for me for achieving any goal for organization. Then after some time (shorty), then they were given more work and responsibilities and allow to do more autonomy. As the boss (manager) is very happy (comfortable) with my work and my decisions which I'm taking after that they were allowed to take more controls. This is the job enrichment. 

Job Enlargement 
Job enlargement is a type of approach in which employees are motivating by increase the duties and work range which they have done previously. In other words, we can say to motivate the employee we increase the responsibility quantity. 

For Example - When I'm working for an organization for early in my career and after some time they add (put) some more work in my duty and my job has been some large and this is called job enlargement. 

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