Short Note on Different Types of Ships



A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research and fishing.

Different types of ships

       Passenger Vessel
       Cargo Vessel
       Naval Ship
       Container Ship
       Bulk Carrier
       Ice Breaker
       Hover Craft
       Hydrofoil Craft
       Ferry
       Oil tanker
       Warship
       Fishing Vessel

Passenger Vessel

               passenger ship is a merchant ship whose primary function is to carry passengers on the sea. The category does not include cargo vessels that have accommodations for limited numbers of passengers, such as the ubiquitous twelve-passenger freighters once common on the seas in which the transport of passengers is secondary to the carriage of freight. The type does however include many classes of ships designed to transport substantial numbers of passengers as well as freight. Indeed, until recently virtually all ocean liners were able to transport mail, package freight and express and other cargo in addition to passenger luggage, and were equipped with cargo holds and derricks, kingposts, or other cargo-handling gear for that purpose. Only in more recent ocean liners and in virtually all cruise ships has this cargo capacity been eliminated.

        

Most modern cruise ships feature the following facilities:
·        Casino — Only open when the ship is at sea to avoid conflict with local laws
·        Shops — Only open when ship is at sea to avoid merchandising licensing and local taxes
·        Spa
·        Fitness center
·        Library
·        Theatre with Broadway-style shows
·        Cinema
·        Indoor and/or outdoor swimming pool with water slides
·        Hot tub
·        Buffet restaurant
·        Lounges
·        Gym
·        Clubs
·        Basketball courts
·        Tennis courts
·        Pool tables
·        Ping pong tables
·        Infirmary
Some ships have bowling alleys, ice skating rinks, rock climbing walls, sky-diving simulator, miniature golf courses, video arcades, ziplines, surfing simulators, basketball courts, tennis courts, chain restaurants and/or ropes obstacle courses.

Cargo Vessel

               cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. Cargo ships are usually specially designed for the task, often being equipped with cranes and other mechanisms to load and unload, and come in all sizes.

 

Different parts of a Cargo Vessel are as follows:
1.      Cargo Gear, Masts and Derricks
2.      Hatch Covers
3.      Cargo winches
4.      Mast house
5.      Main deck
6.      Second deck
7.      Twin deck centreline bulkhead
8.      Lower hold centreline bulkhead
9.      Transverse bulkhead
10.   Tank top
11.   Stowage in holds
12.   Deck cargo
13.   Hatches
14.   Cofferdam

Oil Tanker

               An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a merchant ship designed for the bulk transport of oil. There are two basic types of oil tankers: crude tankers and product tankers. Crude tankers move large quantities of unrefined crude oil from its point of extraction to refineries. Product tankers, generally much smaller, are designed to move refined products from refineries to points near consuming markets.

 
            Oil tankers generally have from 8 to 12 tanks. Each tank is split into two or three independent compartments by fore-and-aft bulkheads. The tanks are numbered with tank one being the forward most. Individual compartments are referred to by the tank number and the athwart ships position, such as "one port", "three starboard", or "six center."
cofferdam is a small space left open between two bulkheads, to give protection from heat, fire, or collision. Tankers generally have cofferdams forward and aft of the cargo tanks, and sometimes between individual tanks. A pump room houses all the pumps connected to a tanker's cargo lines. Some larger tankers have two pump rooms. A pump room generally spans the total breadth of the ship.


Warship/Naval Ship

               warship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare. Usually they belong to the armed forces of a state. As well as being armed, warships are designed to withstand damage and are usually faster and more maneuverable than merchant ships. Unlike a merchant ship, which carries cargo, a warship typically carries only weapons, ammunition and supplies for its crew. Warships usually belong to a navy, though they have also been operated by individuals, cooperatives and corporations.

Different distinguisher of a warship is as follow:
1.      Jackstaff
2.      A turret
3.      B turret
4.      Range-finder (r.f.)
5.      Saluting guns
6.      Conning-tower (c.t.)
7.      Main range-finder, in hood
8.      Navigating bridge
9.      Control
10.   Main deck
11.   Director tower
12.   Compass platform
13.   Signaling searchlights (s.l.)
14.   Flag deck or signaling bridge
15.   Caging
16.   Main derrick (for boats etc.)
17.   Catapult
18.   X turret
19.   Y turret
20.   After shelter deck

Container Ship

        Container ships (sometimes-spelled containerships) are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization. They are a common means of commercial intermodal freight transport and now carry most seagoing non-bulk cargo.
        Container ship capacity is measured in twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU).

Different distinguishable parts of a container ship is:
1.       Bridge castle front,
2.      Deck containers,
3.      Foremast and mast top,
4.      Forecastle,
5.      Insulated containers in holds,
6.      Container refrigeration ducts,
7.      Double hull,
8.      Passageway

Bulk Carrier

                    A bulk carrier, bulk freighter, or bulker is a merchant ship specially designed to transport unpackaged bulk cargo, such as grains, coal, ore, and cement in its cargo holds. Since the first specialized bulk carrier was built in 1852, economic forces have fueled the development of these ships, causing them to grow in size and sophistication. Today's bulkers are specially designed to maximize capacity, safety, efficiency, and durability.

It is consists of two panels per hatch, each panel rolling sideways on a pair of transverse ramps, thus presenting a minimum obstacle when loading.
It facilitate rapid cargo discharge and minimize cleaning requirements, holds are designed with a minimum of internal obstructions that might catch and hold cargo. Serving as transfer points for the transfer of cargo between two-belt systems and raise the ship's center of gravity when a low density cargo is carried. It has a design and construction method where the bottom of the ship has two complete layers of watertight hull surface.
To avoid the above mentioned situation, a void or empty compartment is provided between the tanks to prevent two different liquids from mixing with each other. These tanks are on the sides of the vessel within the bottom wing of each cargo hold and are the continuation of the DB tanks. It is a type of machine, generally equipped with a hoist, wire ropes or chains, and sheaves, that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally. The end of the pipeline on board the vessel which runs from the cargo tanks. The cargo hose is connected to this from the shore so that cargo can be loaded or discharged.
Two or more pulleys (sometimes referred to as drums), with an endless loop of carrying medium—the conveyor belt—that rotates about them. One or both of the pulleys are powered, moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. The powered pulley is called the drive pulley while the unpowered pulley is called the idler pulley.

Fishing Vessel

               A fishing vessel is a boat or ship used to catch fish in the sea, or on a lake or river. Many different kinds of vessels are used in commercialartisanal and recreational fishing.
The distinguisher parts of a Fishing vessel are-
1.      Canot de dinghy
2.      Stack
3.      Masthead light
4.      Radar
5.      Navigation Bridge
6.      Gantry
7.      Awshole
8.      Fishing deck
9.      Docking bridge
10.   Windlass etc..


Ice Breaker

      An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships. Although the term usually refers to ice-breaking ships, it may also refer to smaller vessels, such as the icebreaking boats that were once used on the canals of the United Kingdom


Distinguisher Components:
1.      Fair-lead
2.      Windlass
3.      Hatch
4.      Searchlight
5.      Compass
6.      Observation Scanner
7.      Navigation Scanner
8.      Bridge
9.      Mainmast
10.   Redome
11.   Helicopter Hanger
12.   Helicopter Deck
13.   Freeing port
14.   Echo sounder
15.   Ice Breaker stern
16.   Bollard

Hovercraft

            hovercraft, also known as an air-cushion vehicle or ACV, is a craft capable of travelling over land, water, mud, ice, and other surfaces. Hovercraft are hybrid vessels operated by a pilot as an aircraft rather than a captain as a marine vessel.
Hovercraft use blowers to produce a large volume of air below the hull that is slightly above atmospheric pressure. The pressure difference between the higher pressure air below the hull and lower pressure ambient air above it produces lift, which causes the hull to float above the running surface. For stability reasons, the air is typically blown through slots or holes around the outside of a disk- or oval-shaped platform, giving most hovercraft a characteristic rounded-rectangle shape. Typically this cushion is contained within a flexible "skirt", which allows the vehicle to travel over small obstructions without damage.

Distinguisher Components:
1.      Lifting Unit
2.      Propulsion Unit
3.      Link
4.      Fuel Tank
5.      Air Feed Molo
6.      Stability Bags
7.      Ford
8.      Skirt etc are the key elements

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